Family Group Sheet
Family Group Sheet
NameThomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Essex, 1st Earl of Buckingham
MotherPhilippa of Hainault (1314-1369)
SpouseEleanor DE BOHUN
2 FJoan
Notes for Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Essex, 1st Earl of Buckingham
Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Buckingham, 1st Earl of Essex, Duke of Aumale, KG (7 January 1355 – 8 or 9 September 1397) was the thirteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was the fifth of the five sons of Edward III who survived to adulthood.

Early life

Thomas was born after two short-lived sons, one of whom had also been baptised Thomas. He was born at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. He married Eleanor de Bohun in 1376, and inherited the title Earl of Essex from his father-in-law, Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. Woodstock's wife's younger sister, Mary de Bohun, was subsequently married to Henry "Bolingbroke," who eventually became Henry IV of England.

At the age of 22, in 1377, Woodstock was created Earl of Buckingham. In 1385 he received the title Duke of Aumale, and at about the same time was created Duke of Gloucester.

Campaign in Brittany

Murder of Thomas of Woodstock.

Thomas of Woodstock commanded one of the largest campaigns of the period. This followed the Breton War of Succession, when English forces had supported John V, Duke of Brittany against his rival for the Dukedom Charles of Blois, who was supported by France. At the head of an English army, John was victorious, but the French had continued to undermine his position, and he was later forced in to exile in England. He returned in 1379, supported by Breton barons who feared the annexation of Brittany by France. An English army was sent under Woodstock to support his position. Due to concerns about the safety of a longer shipping route to Brittany itself, the army was ferried to the English continental stronghold of Calais in July 1380. As Woodstock marched his 5,000 men east of Paris they were confronted by the Duke of Burgundy's army at Troyes, but the French had learned from Crécy and Poitiers not to offer a pitched battle to the English, so the two armies eventually marched away. French defensive operations were then thrown into disarray by the death of Charles V a few days later. Woodstock's chevauchée continued westwards largely unopposed, and in November 1380 he laid siege to Nantes and its vital bridge over the Loire towards Aquitaine. However, he found himself unable to form an effective stranglehold and urgent plans were put in place for Sir Thomas Felton to bring 2,000 reinforcements from England. By January, though, it had become apparent that the Duke of Brittany was reconciled to the new French King and, with the alliance collapsing and dysentery ravaging his men, Woodstock abandoned the siege and accepted a 50,000 franc pay off from the Duke of Brittany.

Dispute with King Richard II

Thomas of Woodstock was the leader of the Lords Appellant, a group of powerful nobles whose ambition to wrest power from Thomas' nephew, King Richard II of England, culminated in a successful rebellion in 1388, which significantly weakened the king's power. Richard II managed to dispose of the Lords Appellant in 1397, and Thomas was imprisoned in Calais to await trial for treason.

During that time, he was murdered, probably by a group of men led by Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk and Nicholas Colfox, presumably on behalf of Richard II. This caused an outcry amongst the nobility of England which is considered by many to have added to Richard's unpopularity.


Thomas of Woodstock and his wife had one son, Humphrey, and four daughters: Anne, Joan, Isabelle and Philippa. As he was attainded as a traitor, his dukedom of Gloucester was forfeit. The title of Earl of Buckingham was inherited by his son, who however died only two years later in 1399. Thomas of Woodstock's eldest daughter, Anne, married into the powerful Stafford family, who were Earls of Stafford. Her son, Humphrey Stafford was created Duke of Buckingham in 1444 and also inherited part of the de Bohun estates.

The other part of these estates — including the Earldom of Hereford, which had belonged to Mary de Bohun and had then become incorporated into the holdings of the House of Lancaster — became a matter of contention in the latter 15th century. The House of Lancaster had ruled England as Kings from 1399 to 1461. When Henry VI was deposed by Edward IV of the House of York, Edward appropriated that half into the Crown property. Humphrey's grandson Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham however claimed those lands should have been devolved to him instead. Unsucessful under Edward, he was awarded these lands by Richard III, pending approval of Parliament. This was probably one of the Buckingham's motives in supporting Richard's accession.
Notes for Eleanor DE BOHUN
Lady Eleanor de Bohun (c. 1366 – 3 October 1399) was the elder daughter and co-heiress with her sister Mary de Bohun, of their father Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. Her mother was Lady Joan Fitzalan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and his second wife Eleanor of Lancaster.

In 1376 she married Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester. Thomas was the youngest son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Following their marriage, the couple went to reside in Pleshey Castle, Essex. Eleanor and her husband had the tutelage of her younger sister, Mary, who was being instructed in religious doctrine. This was being done in the hope that she would enter a convent, thus leaving her share of the considerable Bohun inheritance to Eleanor and Thomas.

Together Eleanor and Thomas had five children:
Humphrey, 2nd Earl of Buckingham (c. 1381 - 2 September 1399)
Anne of Gloucester (c. 1383 - 1438) married (1st) Thomas Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford; (2nd) Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford; and (3rd) William Bourchier
Joan (1384 - 16 August 1400) married Gilbert Talbot, 5th Lord Talbot (1383–1419). Died in childbirth.
Isabel (12 March 1385/1386 - April 1402)
Philippe (c. 1388) Died young

Order of the Garter

Eleanor de Bohun was invested as a Lady Companion, Order of the Garter in 1384. She became a nun sometime after 1397 at Barking Abbey. She died on 3 October 1399 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

In fiction

Eleanor appears briefly in Anya Seton's historical romance Katherine, based upon the life of Eleanor's sister-in-law Katherine Swynford, the third wife of John of Gaunt.
Last Modified 18 Aug 2013Created 28 Jan 2018 using Reunion for Macintosh